Tatli Su Baliklari Turkiyede Bulunan 50 Balik isimleri ve listesi - Freshwater Fish: 50 Fish Found in Turkey and Pictures - 2023Pin

Freshwater Fish: 50 Fish Found in Turkey and Pictures – 2023

Freshwater fish live in waters such as lakes, streams, and rivers that are not salty enough for typical marine fish. Freshwater fish species have evolved differently from most other fish to survive in their habitats. They tend to have scales and fins suitable for soft, shallow water.

Most Common Freshwater Fish in Turkey

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Freshwater fish species make up 29.54% of all fish species. More than half of this group consists of carps, including the world’s largest fish group. But what about the other freshwater fish?

Here are the most well-known freshwater fish in Turkey and their brief features:

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Amur bitterling

This fish species, which can grow up to 10cm, is a freshwater fish from the Cyprinidae (carp) family. It originated in Siberia and spread to Europe, Asia, and Eurasia. In our country, it is found in the lakes of the Marmara and Black Sea regions. Although their primary diet consists of plants, they can also feed on snails, worms, and larvae.

They use mussels for reproduction. The female fish lays her eggs inside the mussels, and the developing offspring emerge when they are capable of swimming.

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Mediterranean killifish

This fish lives in shallow and slow-flowing freshwater. The short-lived Afanyus fish thrives in ponds, marshes, and river mouths, feeding on invertebrates and plants. They can grow up to 6 cm in size and use dense plants for reproduction.

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Angora loach

This fish resides in rivers and lakes in Eastern and Central Anatolia. As the name suggests, they prefer muddy areas for their habitat.

They feed on larvae by sucking mud from the ground. Their size can reach up to 6-7 cm at most. They reproduce by laying their eggs among the pebbles on the shores.

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Mirror carp

This species gets its name from its mirror-like bright and large scales. It is related to the common carp. Found in Europe and North America globally, the mirror carp is present in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey.

Due to its tasteful flesh, it is produced in Manisa and exported to Europe. Its size can reach up to 120 cm, and it can weigh up to 35 kg, making it one of the largest freshwater fish.

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Common barbel

This fish is a species from the “Barbinae” subfamily, which belongs to the Cyprinidae (carp) family. The whiskered fish has a long body and strong, large fins. The size of its fins allows it to live in swift, challenging waters.

It lives in clear, clean flowing waters. Its size can reach up to 50 cm, and its weight can go up to 3 kg.

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Flathead Catfish

Compared to the regular catfish, its size is smaller. It lives in the rivers with sandy and muddy beds in the Southeastern Anatolia region.

Dwarf catfish eat everything they can find for nutrition, including invertebrates, larvae, and even frogs. Their size can reach up to 40-45 cm, and they can weigh up to 500 grams.

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bighead goby

They live in the rivers of the Black Sea and Thrace regions. They feed in brackish waters with gravelly and sandy beds and spread to rivers. The bighead goby is quite territorial and aggressive.

They don’t hesitate to attack other fish approaching their nests. They lay their eggs on the beaches to reproduce. Their size can be up to 22 cm, and they can weigh between 200-250 grams.

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Common bream

They live in the lakes and rivers of the Black Sea and Marmara. They can also be found in the lakes of the Central Anatolia region.

They feed on algae, small fish, and worms. Their size can reach up to 70 cm, and they can weigh up to 6 kg.

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Mediterranean trout

This species is the largest of the trout species. It can be found in every region of Turkey, especially in the Southeast and Northeast. They prefer water of drinkable quality as their habitat.

Mountain trout are endangered, so fishing for them is prohibited. They can grow up to 1 meter in length and weigh up to 25 kg. Among freshwater fish and trout species, it’s a type that needs protection.

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Brown Trout

They thrive in high-current, cold waters. They are territorial fish and don’t like other fish being in their territory. They feed on juvenile and small fish, as well as worms.

You can observe them swimming against the current and leaping. Their flesh is quite tasty. Their size can reach up to 60 cm, and they can weigh up to 2 kg.

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Gobio gobio

They live in streams, brooks, and rivers. They are a sedentary fish and grow by laying on the mud at the bottom.

Their flesh is tasty, but they are generally used as bait for fishing in our country. Their size can be up to 20 cm, and they can weigh between 150-200 grams.

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European flounder

They inhabit where the sea and rivers mix, in brackish water regions. They are found in the Mediterranean, in areas with low currents.

They can grow up to 50 cm in length and weigh up to 3 kg. This is a carnivorous flounder species that feeds on small fish and worms.

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Three-spined stickleback

This fish, like the brook flounder, lives in brackish waters. The stickleback is quite small in size and can grow up to 9 cm. They live in stagnant waters, among plants and algae.

They feed on the eggs left by other fish and smaller juveniles. Among freshwater fish species, it is one of the smaller ones.

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Vimba vimba

This species thrives in brackish waters where river waters merge with the sea. Their primary diet consists of insects, worms, and juvenile fish.

To reproduce, they can travel to the upper parts of rivers, even to where the streams merge. They can grow up to 30 cm in length and weigh as much as 400 grams.

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Originally from the southern waters of the USA, this species was introduced to Turkey. The primary purpose for bringing the Gambusia fish to our country was to reduce the spread of malaria from mosquitoes, as they primarily feed on mosquito larvae.

This is a small fish species that can reach up to 6 cm in length and they live in shallow, warm waters. They are closely related to freshwater aquarium fish known as Guppies.

Aquarium Fish
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Rainbow trout

Also known as Steelhead, this species is native to North America. They were then brought to Europe and later to Turkey. They are favored due to the taste of their flesh and the ease of breeding compared to other species.

They can grow up to 80 cm in length and weigh as much as 10 kg. Cultivated in waters rich in oxygen, they feed on small fish and artificial baits.

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Lake trout

They share similarities with brook and sea trouts. Due to their habitat in lake waters, their coloration and body structure differ. They have a more rounded body compared to brook trout.

They live in deep and cold waters. With their tasty flesh, lake trout is a valuable fish species for amateur fishing. They can reach sizes of up to 90 cm and weigh as much as 25 kg.

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Sarmarutilus rubilio

Found in the North Aegean, Marmara, and Thrace regions, they live in waters with little current and abundant vegetation. Their main diet consists of insects, larvae, and worms.

Due to their tasteless and bony flesh, they are not much preferred among edible freshwater fish. They can grow up to 25 cm in length and can weigh up to 300 grams.

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This species is abundant both in our seas and lakes. They prefer warm waters for habitation and feed on things like larvae and worms.

They reproduce by laying their eggs on gravelly grounds. Although they might be small and not fatty, their flesh is quite tasty.

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Silver carp

Like others, this type of carp has spread from Asia to the world. Its flesh is lean but tasty, and it’s consumed extensively in China.

They feed on microscopic planktons in the water. They can reach sizes of up to 140 cm and weigh as much as 50 kg. They are among the larger freshwater fishes.

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Crucian carp

This species is very similar to carp. To differentiate them, one should look at their back and whiskers. Pond fish don’t have whiskers and have a higher back compared to carp. Pond and carp fish can interbreed. They are commonly found in the Thrace, Marmara, and Kızılırmak regions.

They can eat almost anything, including larvae, juvenile fish, and plants. Even if the pond they live in dries up, they can bury themselves in the mud and survive for a while. They can grow up to 60 cm in length and weigh up to 3 kg.

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They inhabit seas and estuaries with brackish waters. They are common in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions of Turkey. With a pulseless and slippery body, the Horozbina can grow up to 20 cm. They use mussels for reproduction, hiding their eggs between mussel shells.

Additionally, a study by the Sinop University Faculty of Aquatic Products found a parasite in the Horozbina fish. This parasite causes cyst formation and adversely affects the respiratory system.

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Common bleak

This species lives in slow-flowing waters in large schools. Various other types of this fish are also found in our country. One of them, the white pearl fish, can be seen in the freshwater flowing into the Mediterranean.

Growing up to 25 cm, they use riverbanks, small water puddles, or sands for reproduction.

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Common nase

Common in our country, this species inhabits the bottom parts of lakes and rivers, particularly in gravelly areas. They feed on the algae on stones, animals at the bottom, and plant roots.

Depending on their habitat, their size can vary. They can grow up to 50 cm in length and can weigh up to 2 kg.

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Widely found in the lakes and dams in the western and eastern Black Sea regions of Turkey, it is named the velvet fish because of its appearance and texture.

They feed on microscopic organisms, algae, and leeches. They can reach sizes of up to 70 cm and can weigh up to 10 kg.

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Among freshwater fishes, they prefer to live within schools. They inhabit the bottom parts of rivers and streams connected to the Black Sea in our country.

For nourishment, they consume mollusks, larvae, and shrimps. They can grow up to 15 cm in length.

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This species was domesticated for pond environments by the Chinese about a thousand years ago. Due to their body colors, they are a popular choice for ornamental ponds.

Also known as the king fish, the red pond fish can adapt to environments like aquariums, ponds, and similar habitats. They can grow up to 20 cm in length.

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Common roach

This fish has a broad habitat range. Although they belong to freshwater fishes, they can survive in the most challenging environments, including brackish and saltwater. They have a white belly, silver-colored bodies, and reddish eyes.

They are often confused with the species known as “kızılkanat” due to these characteristics. Their diet is quite diverse; they feed on plants, planktons, larvae, worms, mussels, and snails. They can reach sizes of up to 45 cm and can weigh up to 2 kg.

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Found only in the northern regions of our country, the kızılkanat closely resembles the kızılgöz fish. They live in groups in still and slow-flowing shallow waters.

Their primary food source is plants, but they also consume worms and larvae. They can grow up to 50 cm in length and weigh up to 3 kg.

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Found in the northern regions of Turkey, especially in the rapid waters of Marmara and Thrace. They are also commonly seen in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

It’s not considered a tasty fish, but it’s a favorite among sport fishers. They can grow up to 120 cm in length and can weigh up to 10 kg.

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Chub mackerel

Their body is round, resembling a torpedo. In our country, they are also referred to as “Çiroz.” Resembling mackerel, kolyoz can be identified by its triangular dorsal fin and pointed tail.

They live in the brackish waters of rivers opening to the Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean, and Marmara seas, and also in the lakes of these regions. They can grow up to 60 cm in length and weigh up to 2.5 kg.

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Racer goby

Among freshwater fishes, they inhabit the regions where rivers merging into the sea mix with brackish and freshwater. Crustaceans are their primary food, but they also feed on mollusks.

Like other species, this fish’s meat is also tasty. They can grow up to 30 cm in length (although instances of 50 cm have been reported, this information isn’t confirmed).

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Rutilus frisii

Also known as Kutum, this species inhabits the waters where rivers merge with the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. They are also densely found in Lake Iznik in our country.

Levkit fish, which is also found in the İyidere, Hopa, and Güneysu streams, can reach 70 cm in length and weigh up to 8 kg.

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Common minnow

Predominantly found in the Thrace region, this species prefers clean and fast-flowing streams. They are also densely found in Lake Manyas. A carnivorous species, they feed on plankton, worms, and larvae.

Covered in bright, pearl-like scales, they are used as bait by predators. They can grow up to 15 cm in length.

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Alburnoides bipunctatus

They live in the fast-flowing waters of Marmara, Thrace, and the Black Sea. They love to swim against the current. For nourishment, they consume small crustaceans, larvae, and planktons.

They are among the fishes used as bait for other freshwater fishes. They can grow up to 16 cm in length.

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grass carp

Also known as the White Amur or Grass Carp, this fish thrives in wide rivers and lakes. It’s the most cultivated fish, producing up to five million tons annually. It has several varieties within its species, including short or long-finned, with or without whiskers, and spined types.

As the name suggests, it’s a herbivorous fish. It’s considered an ideal solution for controlling unwanted aquatic vegetation. It can reach up to 100 cm in length and weigh as much as 30 kg.

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Crucian carp

Cultivated for centuries, it’s a tasty and easily grown type of carp. It’s also valued for sport fishing.

It can reach up to 40 cm in length and weigh up to 1 kg. Among freshwater fishes, it’s a common sight in markets. It also holds the majority in reservoir fish populations. The DSI (State Hydraulic Works) has released millions of its fry into various reservoirs.

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This species, first spotted in our country’s freshwater in 1943, is predominantly found in the Ulubat and Iznik lakes. Sardines, which swim in schools, can reach a maximum length of 12 cm.

They feed on plankton, tiny crustaceans, and larvae. In our country, they’re also known to be used as feed in trout farms.

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These fish thrive in fast-flowing, oxygen-rich, clean streams. This species, which spread to the world from North America, was introduced to our country for cultivation purposes.

Adults can adapt from freshwater to brackish water and the sea. Among freshwater fishes, salmon is considered to have the most delicious meat. They can reach up to 1.5 meters in length and weigh up to 20 kg.

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Originating from Eastern Europe, the Sudak is also known as the long bass. They mainly inhabit lakes and rivers, but they’ve also been observed in the brackish waters where rivers merge with the sea.

They’re enjoyable to catch and their meat is exceptionally tasty. Sudak is not very active during the day but hunts at night. They can reach lengths of up to 125 cm and weigh up to 19 kg.

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European perch

Found in the western regions of the Marmara and Black Sea in our country, they have very tasty meat. They’re opportunistic feeders and if left hungry, they might even eat members of their own species.

They are common in the brackish waters of lakes and rivers. Their primary diet consists of small fishes, mollusks, and fish eggs. They can grow up to 50 cm in length and weigh up to 4 kg.

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Squalius cephalus

Also known as the white fish, this freshwater gray mullet inhabits the surface waters of fast-flowing rivers. They use slow currents and rocky regions to hide.

Until they reach adulthood, their primary diet consists of worms, larvae, and shrimps. Afterward, they feed on smaller fishes, plants, and grass. They can reach up to 80 cm in length and weigh up to 6 kg.

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Preferring to live in schools, this species resides in the Thracian region and the brackish waters of rivers connecting to the Black Sea.

Their primary diet consists of larvae, worms, fish eggs, and crustaceans. They can reach lengths of up to 35 cm.

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Northern pike

Common in the western and northern parts of our country, pike can be found almost everywhere. They prefer waters rich in vegetation and clear. Being a predatory fish, pikes are not picky eaters.

They can consume frogs, fishes, mice, and even ducklings from their environment. They can reach up to 150 cm in length and weigh as much as 40 kg. Also, pike is considered one of the most delicious freshwater fish.

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Wels catfish

Catfish hold the record for the largest size and weight among freshwater fish. They choose to live in warm, deep, and slowly flowing rivers. They love to hide in caves created by currents and among tree roots.

It is said that its taste resembles beef, and if the fish is too old, it loses its delightful flavor. The largest catfish was caught in the Po river, measuring 278 cm and weighing 144 kg. They are the largest among freshwater fish species.

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Eels can live in both freshwater and saltwater. They use saltwater for breeding. After three years of development, they return to freshwater.

They are predators, and their primary diet consists of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. They can reach up to 150 cm in length.

Species, Habitat, Fishing, and Consumption Table

You can review the table we have prepared for some freshwater fish to get a brief understanding of their fishing, consumption, and habitat.

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YouTube video
TroutThey can be found in every region, especially in production ponds.They can be caught with hooks and cast nets.They can be consumed fresh, canned, smoked, or frozen.
Barbus They are found from East Asia to Western Europe and in some regions of Africa.They can be caught using longlines, cast nets, and hooks.They are consumed fresh.
SALMONThey are cultivated in cages in the Black Sea. They haven’t spread naturally.They can be caught with trawl nets and hooks.Their meat can be consumed fresh, smoked, or frozen.
Eurasian CarpThey are abundantly found in almost all lakes, ponds, and rivers in our country.They can be caught with hooks and various nets.It is a delicious species with red meat. It is usually consumed fresh.
Capoeta pestaiThey are spread from China to Anatolia.They can be found in the rocky regions of swift rivers.They can be caught using cast nets, longlines, and hooks.They are consumed fresh.
ZanderThey live in large waters; can be found in lakes, dams, and broad, deep rivers.They can be caught with hooks and longlines.They are consumed fresh and frozen.
Squalius cephalusThey live in the inland waters of Anatolia.They like hiding at the rocky bottoms of rivers.They can be caught using longlines, cast nets, and hooks.They are consumed fresh.
CATCH FISHThey live in the lakes and rivers of our country.They can be caught with hooks and longlines.It is a quite delicious species with white meat and low fat. It is consumed fresh.
Wels catfishThey live in still waters and large lakes.They can be caught using purse seines, cast nets, and hooks.Their meat is tasty. They are generally consumed fresh. Their bones and swim bladder are used in adhesive production.


How Many Types of Freshwater Fish Are There?

It is known that there are more than 18,000 freshwater fish species in waters all over the world.

What Bait Attracts Freshwater Fish?

Although many different baits and bait mixtures such as worms, larvae, insects, bread crumbs, and ready-made baits are used to catch freshwater fish, the most effective baits are mixtures made with corn.

Kaynaklar: https://tr.wikipedia.org/

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